Summary for Rugathodes bellicosus (Araneae)

previous species | next species

National Distribution

Logged-on? click on dot to query records. Please note our
Terms of Use. Double-click on map to go to region

View time series maps for Rugathodes bellicosus
Identification difficulty rating: 3
Name: Rugathodes bellicosus
Authority: (Simon, 1873)
Order: Arachnida: Araneae
Family: Theridiidae
National Rarity status: NR
IUCN status: LC

Records: 92
First Record: 1900
Latest Record: 2022

1992-on hectads: 24
Pre-1992 hectads: 18
Total hectads: 41

Explore Regional Distribution

Please log on and add a note on this species

Missing records?

Please report any problems with this record:
VC error
GR error
Taxon ID suspect
Structural habitat suspect
Other problems, please explain here:


About this species

Recorded altitude range
2m to 600m

Species text

R. bellicosus is restricted to North Wales, the north of England and Scotland. It is widespread on mountains in northern and central Europe (Merrett 1990).

Habitat and ecology
This tiny spider lives amongst boulders, where flimsy criss-cross threads are spun across large cavities between rocks (Roberts 1995). The habitat includes scree slopes on mountains, boulders on the coast and by inland lakes and also man-made rock piles, e.g. spoil from limestone quarrying. Females may be readily identified by the relatively large white egg-sac carried on the spinners. Both sexes are adult in May and early June, females until autumn.

The species is locally abundant within suitable habitat. It has shown an apparent 50% decline in occupied 10 km squares over a 20 year period but may be under-recorded because of the difficulties of exploring the habitat.

There is possibly a threat from the tidying up of old quarry sites. Although it appears to have declined, this may in part be due to under-recording in its specialised micro-habitat.

Management and conservation
Protect abandoned quarries from inappropriate development.

Text based on Dawson, I.K., Harvey, P.R., Merrett, P. & Russell-Smith, A.R. (in prep.).  References

Adult Season

Adult Season Data (based on 45 records with adult season information)


background methodology

Broad Habitat Data (based on 46 records with habitat information)

Broad subhabitat Data (based on 1 records with subhabitat information)

Structural Habitat Data (based on 31 records with structural habitat information)

Habitat Detail and Method (based on 41 records with habitat detail and method information)

Recorded management for locations with Rugathodes bellicosus

Recorded substrate and hydrology for locations with Rugathodes bellicosus


sorry, no pictures available for this species yet - if you have an image please log on and upload it

See also A-Z Species Index - A-Z Picture Index - previous species | next species